Chenopodium Quinoa Willd, popularly known as Quinoa, is a super grain that has taken the world of the health-conscious by storm.
Quinoa is a gluten-free seed that contains all the 9 essential amino acids and has double the amount of fiber as compared to the other grains.
Quinoa was and is still revered for its high nutritional content –rich in proteins with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is believed that Quinoa was consumed as a holy plant.
It is rich in high amounts of biologically active compounds known as phytochemicals such as saponins, phytosterols and phytoecdysteroids.
Intake of quinoa has considerable beneficial effects on our metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. Quinoa is a multifunctional grain and both its leaves and seeds are edible.
Nutritional Benefits of Quinoa
The multi-functional grain Quinoa is one of the world’s most popular foods that are touted to benefit health.
It contains all the 9 essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals, proteins and lipids. The fibre content in quinoa is much higher than most of the other grains. Quinoa is also rich in iron, potassium and magnesium.
It also contains a rich and wide variety of antioxidants and phytohormones.
Grains are an essential part of our diet and almost half of our energy requirements are met by the intake of these staples. As per a survey conducted by the USFDA in 2015, it has been observed that the nutritional values of quinoa are much superior, as compared to wheat, barley, rice or oats.
2. Carbohydrates and fibre
A cup of cooked quinoa contains 39 g of carbohydrate and 5 g of fibre. Although it is not necessarily low, it contains 39 g of complex carbohydrates that can serve as a good source of energy.
About 83% of the carbohydrates found in quinoa are in the form of starch. The rest of it consists of fibre. It also contains about 4% of sugars in the form of maltose, galactose, and ribose.
An article published in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2009, states that the “unusual composition and exceptional balance” of protein, oil and fat, as well as minerals, fatty acids, antioxidants and vitamins, make quinoa an exceptionally nutritious food.
Quinoa with all the essential amino acids provides eight grams of quality protein per cup (185 grams). It is an excellent source of complete plant-based protein for vegetarians and vegans.
4. Vitamins and Minerals
Quinoa contains high concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B6. According to a USFDA survey conducted in 2015, quinoa is rich in micronutrients and minerals. For instance, 100 grams of quinoa intake can meet 80% of a child’s vitamin B2 requirements and similarly 40% of adults’ requirements.
It is also an excellent source of vitamin E. In fact, it is much higher in this grain than those found in wheat.
Quinoa seeds contain high amounts of minerals and its calcium and iron content is much higher as compared to the other staple grains known to humans.
As compared to wheat (0.16%) and corn (0.14%), quinoa contains 0.26% of magnesium and potassium. These are present in adequate biological forms and can thus be consumed to meet the mineral requirements of a balanced diet.
Health Benefits of Quinoa
Quinoa has low levels of sodium and is abundantly rich in fibre. Fibre is the indigestible part of carbohydrates that helps in satiation and also aids in relieving constipation.
Quinoa works wonders by keeping the cholesterol levels in check and thus can prevent cardiovascular diseases. It can also aid in stabilising blood sugar levels.
1. Quinoa a rich source of antioxidants
Quinoa is a rich source of antioxidants as it contains an abundance of phytochemicals.
Antioxidants help in reducing the risk associated with diseases related to oxidative stress. Cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity are some of the diseases for which antioxidants prove to be beneficial.
2. Good source of lysine
Lysine is an essential amino acid that is crucial for the growth and maintenance of the body. It plays a crucial role in building muscle protein and calcium absorption.
Quinoa contains high amounts of the amino acid lysine, which is usually not present in legumes.
3. Anti-Cancer Properties
Quinoa has formidable anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It contains bioactive compounds in the form of saponins and polyphenols.
Compounds such as genistein, quercetin and kaempferol are known to suppress and prevent the growth of blood vessels that feed cancerous tumours.
4. Quinoa and Weight Loss
Touted as the super grain of the future, intake of quinoa aids in the process of weight loss. Quinoa does not directly cause weight loss but makes the process a lot easier.
It contains high amounts of complete proteins and fibre which suppress the hunger pangs and keeps you satiated for a longer period of time.
Moreover, a high intake of fibre helps in lowering your cholesterol levels.
According to a clinical trial conducted and published in 2014, it was observed that quinoa reduces fat absorption and helps in expending more energy. To put it simply, it helps in burning more calories and enhances the glucose metabolism of the body. It helps your body to process the carbohydrates more effectively.
Manganese is an essential mineral required by the body for enhanced metabolism functioning. And quinoa contains higher amounts of manganese as compared to wheat and rice. The amount of manganese in quinoa helps us meet almost a third of our daily requirements of the mineral, which in turn can help prevent abdominal obesity.
In a research paper published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2016, it was found that quinoa has a low glycemic index. Foods having a low glycemic index help in regulating and lowering blood sugar levels.
5. Build Lean Mass and Strength
Quinoa is increasingly becoming popular with the gym-goers and athletes for its wonder composition – protein.
A diet rich in protein helps in building and preserving muscles which increase strength and enhances physical performance.
6. Quinoa Keeps Your Gut Healthy
The human gut contains trillions of bacteria that affect your appetite, body weight, digestion, mood, and hormone production. These microorganisms present in the gut have a direct impact on your ability to lose fat and keep it off.
In 2018, a study published in the journal Genes researchers has found that prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics are required and can alter the gut flora positively thus facilitating the weight loss mechanism.
Being a multifunctional grain, quinoa contains large amounts of prebiotics that feeds the good bacteria in the gut. All these compounds combined help in balancing the microbiota that aids in digestion.
Effective digestion helps in the prevention of obesity by regulating the appetite and thus reducing the weight.
7. Weight control
Quinoa has a potential lipid-lowering effect. In 2017 according to a study published in Current Developments in Nutrition, consuming 50 gms of quinoa daily can help reduce serum triglyceride levels in people suffering from obesity or overweight.
Consumption of quinoa also helps in reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.
Introducing Quinoa in Your Daily Diet
With its power-packed nutrients, quinoa is a humble grain that can be incorporated effortlessly in our diets.
Quinoa can be cooked very easily and it has a very neutral taste with a nutty flavour.
Here are some of the ways to cook quinoa.
Smoothies are a great way to begin your day. They can be prepared quickly and are considered a healthy breakfast. One can blend the quinoa in any of your breakfast smoothies and give it a protein twist. This will keep you energised throughout the day.
2. As a Substitute for Oats and Pastas
Quinoa can be easily substituted for oats or pasta. The grain boils and becomes tender quite quickly. A dash of vegetables, nuts, fruits or milk can be incorporated to enjoy the goodness of it.
Its high fibre content keeps you satiated for longer hours and at the same time, keeps you energised.
3. Energy Bars
Combined with nuts, whole wheat flour, chia seeds, chocolate chips and honey, quinoa can be transformed into energy bars that can be consumed on the way or packed for snack boxes.
Quinoa can be easily added to soups for its thick creamy texture and enhanced nutritive value. A comforting chicken or vegetable soup can be enhanced by adding quinoa.
The super grain is a complete source of protein and can make a great addition to any healthy salad. The combination of fibre, protein and healthy fats can transform a simple salad s into a power-packed entrée.
Side effects of quinoa
Though intake of Quinoa has garnered a lot of popularity, in some cases eating quinoa may cause common symptoms of food allergies or stomachaches, itchy skin or hives. Sensitivity to the compound saponin, found in the outer covering may cause these symptoms.
Saponin is a bitter outer covering which is soapy in texture. It protects the quinoa plant from fungal and insect attacks. Saponin contains toxins that can cause irritation in some people. Though the level of toxicity is low, some people may be sensitive to this compound.
Saponin allergy can be addressed by thoroughly washing the quinoa seeds under running water. Soak quinoa for 30 minutes and wash it well before cooking. This will remove the natural coating that contains the saponin.
Symptoms of intolerance to quinoa include:
- Inflammation in the skin, lungs, and digestive tract
- Wheezing, shortness of breath
- Stomach aches
As with any allergy, extreme symptoms in case of a severe allergic response to having quinoa can include:
- Pale skin
- Elevated heart rate
- Facial swelling
- Low blood pressure
Quinoa has been cultivated for ages and is consumed mainly for its edible seeds. It has been growing and cultivated in the Andes for the last 5,000 years. Various subspecies of the plant are highly adaptable and thrive in a variety of altitudes and climatic regions.
The UN General Assembly declared the year 2013 as the “International Year of Quinoa”.
The Year of Quinoa tried to create awareness and grab the world’s attention towards the nutritional, economic, environmental and cultural value of quinoa.
Quinoa can be consumed to enhance your plate. It can be swapped for rice during dinner and oatmeal during breakfast. From salads to soups, all of your meals can benefit from a high-quality quinoa protein boost.
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